All Projects

75 Results for
Recipient
Scott SWCD
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$201,000
Fund Source

This project builds on the momentum and success of previous Clean Water Fund grants in making significant non-point source pollution reductions that address state-identified turbidity, excess nutrient and dissolved oxygen impairments of the Lower Minnesota River and points downstream. These water quality improvements will be achieved by constructing high-value, cost-effective conservation best management practices in Scott County directly tributary to the Minnesota River.

Scott
Recipient
Farmers, Rural Landowners, and Agricultural Supply Businesses
2021 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$75,000
2020 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$75,000
2019 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$75,000
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$75,000
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$75,000
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$75,000
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$200,000
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$200,000
2013 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$4,500,000
2012 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$4,500,000
2011 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$2,500,000
2010 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$2,000,000
Fund Source

The AgBMP Loan Program provides needed funding for local implementation of clean water practices at an extremely low cost, is unique in its structure, and is not duplicated by any other source of funding. The AgBMP loan program provides 3% loans through local lenders to farmers, rural landowners, and agriculture supply businesses. Funds are used for proven practices that prevent non-point source water pollution or solve existing water quality problems.

Anoka
Becker
Blue Earth
Brown
Carver
Clearwater
Cook
Cottonwood
Dakota
Dodge
Douglas
Faribault
Fillmore
Freeborn
Goodhue
Grant
Houston
Hubbard
Jackson
Kandiyohi
Kittson
Lac qui Parle
Le Sueur
Lincoln
Lyon
Marshall
Martin
Morrison
Mower
Murray
Nicollet
Nobles
Olmsted
Otter Tail
Pipestone
Pope
Redwood
Renville
Rice
Rock
Roseau
Scott
Sherburne
Sibley
St. Louis
Stearns
Steele
Stevens
Todd
Traverse
Wabasha
Waseca
Washington
Watonwan
Winona
Yellow Medicine
Recipient
Braun Intertec
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$80,687
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$17,828
Fund Source

This project will complete the installation of four nested wells to the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring Network and relocated one well in the City of Saint Paul. Braun Intertec will coordinate site access and oversee the well installation by a state drilling contractor.

Anoka
Hennepin
Ramsey
Recipient
St. Croix Watershed Research Station
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$38,795
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$4,647
Fund Source

The primary goal of this project is to analyze of dated sediment cores to reconstruct changes in the lake condition over the last 150 years. This will be done using multiple lines of evidence including biogeochemistry, sediment accumulation, and diatom and algal remains as biological indicators.

Koochiching
Recipient
Emmons and Olivier Resources, Inc
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$17,448
Fund Source

Bartlett Lake in Koochiching County is impaired for eutrophication and has already undergone a paleolimnological study. This project will utilize the data and results of paleolimnological study to develop in-lake management strategies that, if implemented, could significantly improve the water quality of Bartlett Lake.

Koochiching
Recipient
Faribault County SWCD
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$94,500
Fund Source

The goal is to facilitate strategic networking, learning, and implementation in targeted groups to assess, build, and leverage community capacity (i.e. community resources and values) to increase best management practice (BMP) adoption to restore and protect water quality in the Blue Earth River watershed

Blue Earth
Faribault
Freeborn
Jackson
Martin
Recipient
Blue Earth County SWCD
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$29,929
Fund Source

The Blue Earth SWCD will be monitoring 7 stream sites located in the Le Sueur River Watershed.  The stream sites will be monitored at the road crossing locations via bridge, culvert or shore.  Onsite conditions will be recorded, water sample readings will be taken for Secchi tube, specific conductance, temperature, pH, DO, and photos taken.  

Blue Earth
Waseca
Recipient
Metropolitan Council/USGS
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$252,970
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$247,604
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$29,427
Fund Source

A cooperative study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Metropolitan Council, and the Minnesota Department of Health to assess groundwater and surface-water interactions in lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), including White Bear Lake. An important product of the study was the creation of a groundwater-flow model focused on the northeast TCMA. The groundwater flow model is available for future use to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals on lake levels as well as to describe other groundwater and surface-water interactions.

Anoka
Ramsey
Washington
Recipient
Minnesota Department of Agriculture
2020 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$183,631
2019 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$170,848
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$177,642
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$208,625
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$189,086
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$179,360
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$205,000
2013 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$205,000
2012 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$200,000
2010 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$125,000
Fund Source

The Discovery Farms program is a farmer-led effort to gather field-scale water quality information on different types of farms across Minnesota. The three pillars of the program are farmer leadership, credible research, and communicating results.

Blue Earth
Chisago
Dodge
Goodhue
Kandiyohi
Norman
Renville
Rock
Stearns
Wilkin
Wright
2021 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$250,000
2020 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$250,000
2019 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$250,000
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$250,000
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$250,000
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$250,000
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$250,000
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$250,000
Fund Source

The Minnesota DNR and the Minnesota Forest Resources Council work with forest landowners, managers and loggers to implement a set of voluntary sustainable forest management guidelines that include water quality best management practices (BMPs) to ensure sustainable habitat, clean water, and productive forest soils, all contributing to healthy watersheds. This project will monitor the implementation of these forest management guidelines and BMPs on forested watersheds in MN.

Fillmore
Goodhue
Wabasha
Winona
Carlton
Houston
Koochiching
Lake of the Woods
Mahnomen
Olmsted
Otter Tail
Pine
Roseau
Stearns
Todd
Wadena
Aitkin
Anoka
Becker
Beltrami
Benton
Cass
Clearwater
Cook
Crow Wing
Hubbard
Isanti
Itasca
Kanabec
Lake
Mille Lacs
Morrison
Sherburne
St. Louis
Recipient
Nicollet SWCD
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$90,400
Fund Source

This project will layer hydrologic, hydraulic, geomorphic, and pollutant loading analysis with existing countywide PTMApp outputs to identify the four highest priority areas for BMP implementation in an eastern Nicollet County ravine system experiencing dramatic mass wasting events. Three alternatives for each priority site will be presented, including an evaluation of water quality benefit, construction costs, and a cost-benefit summary.

Nicollet
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$1,808,000
Fund Source

Minnesota’s use of groundwater has increased over the last two decades. An increasing reliance on groundwater may not be a sustainable path for continued economic growth and development. The DNR is establishing three pilot groundwater management areas (GWMA) to help improve groundwater appropriation decisions and help groundwater users better understand and plan for future groundwater needs associated with economic development.

Clearwater
Douglas
Meeker
Swift
Wadena
Anoka
Becker
Hubbard
Pope
Ramsey
Stearns
Washington
Recipient
Tetra Tech
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$3,969
Fund Source

This project is for constructing, calibrating, and validating a Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) watershed models for the Minnesota portions of the Des Moines Headwaters, Lower Des Moines, and East Fork Des Moines watersheds. The model can be used to provide information to support conventional parameter Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) reports. This model generates predicted output timeseries data for hydrology, sediment, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen that are consistent with observed data.

Cottonwood
Jackson
Lyon
Martin
Murray
Pipestone
Recipient
Metropolitan Council/University of Minnesota/Minnesota Technical Assistance Program (MnTAP)
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$15,650
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$48,700
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$103,500
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$83,700
2019 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$93,050
Fund Source

The Metropolitan Council, in conjunction with the University of Minnesota Technical Assistance Program (MnTAP), are exploring opportunities for water conservation by businesses in the eleven county metropolitan area. This program began by defining opportunities for water conservation for three businesses through the dedicated resources of three MnTAP interns. The interns analyzed water conservation opportunities through full time work on site over the summers of 2014 and 2015.

Anoka
Carver
Dakota
Hennepin
Ramsey
Scott
Washington
Recipient
University of Minnesota-Extension
2021 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$150,000
2020 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$150,000
2019 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$110,000
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$110,000
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$110,000
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$110,000
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$110,000
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$110,000
Fund Source

Funding supports an Irrigation Specialist to develop guidance and provide education on irrigation and nitrogen best management practices (BMPs). In this position, Dr. Vasu Sharma provides direct support to irrigators on issues of irrigation scheduling and soil water monitoring. She is collaborating on the development of new irrigation scheduling tools that help irrigators manage water and nitrogen resources more precisely. These tools help reduce nitrogen leaching losses in irrigated cropping systems.

Becker
Beltrami
Benton
Big Stone
Blue Earth
Brown
Cass
Chippewa
Clay
Crow Wing
Dakota
Douglas
Goodhue
Grant
Hubbard
Isanti
Kandiyohi
Kittson
Lac qui Parle
Lincoln
Marshall
Meeker
Morrison
Mower
Norman
Otter Tail
Pipestone
Polk
Pope
Red Lake
Renville
Rice
Sherburne
Stearns
Stevens
Swift
Todd
Wabasha
Wadena
Washington
Watonwan
Wright
Recipient
Itasca County Soil and Water Conservation District
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$30,279
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$31,501
2021 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$13,950
Fund Source

Itasca SWCD will work with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency as a collaborative effort to monitor the Big Fork River near Bigfork at State Highway 6 and Big Fork River near Craigsville at State Highway 6.  Itasca Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD) staff will strive to capture the peak, rising, and falling limbs of the hydrograph for spring run-off and significant storm events as well as base flow samples. Itasca SWCD staff will utilize local rain gauge readers, storm tracking weather services, and historical stage data to aid in making monitoring judgments.

Itasca
Koochiching
Recipient
Jackson, City of
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$1,789,077
Fund Source

Connect homes with failing septic systems to municipal system

Jackson
Recipient
Lake of the Woods SWCD
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$55,956
Fund Source

The Rainy River - Rainy Lake, Rainy River - Baudette and Rapid River Watershed Assessments will include the waters of the Baudette River, Black River, Peppermint Creek, Rapid River, Rat Root River and Winter Road River in Koochiching and Lake of the Woods Counties. This assessment focuses on collection of water chemistry and field parameters at the 12 key sites identified and modified by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). Five of the sites will have extra total phosphorus and chlorophyll analysis completed as identified by the MPCA for collecting river nutrients.

Koochiching
Lake of the Woods
St. Louis
Recipient
LimnoTech
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$48,667
Fund Source

The goal of this project is to finalize the draft Lake Pepin Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Report, issue it for public comment, address comments, and finalize the report. Lake Pepin is impaired by high levels of nutrients that cause excessive growth of algae. High levels of sediment, carried in by major river systems, also affect the lake. The sediment is filling in the lake at a much faster rate than before Minnesota was settled and intensely farmed. Nutrients and sediment are distinct yet inter-related pollutants, and are being addressed in separate TMDL reports.

Dakota
Goodhue
Scott
Wabasha
Recipient
LimnoTech
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$75,630
Fund Source

The consultant LimnoTech will support response to Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) comments the peer review process, United States Environmental Protection Agency and public notice. They will then revise the TMDL document as needed and attend internal and external project meetings.

Anoka
Carver
Dakota
Dodge
Goodhue
Hennepin
Le Sueur
McLeod
Mower
Nicollet
Olmsted
Ramsey
Renville
Rice
Scott
Sherburne
Sibley
Steele
Wabasha
Washington
Wright
Recipient
Lake of the Woods Water Sustainability Foundation
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$500
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$500
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$500
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$500
Fund Source

The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) is a co-sponsor and assists with a portion of the financial support for the International Rainy River-Lake of the Woods Watershed Forum.

Cook
Koochiching
Lake
Lake of the Woods
Roseau
St. Louis
Recipient
Koochiching SWCD
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$81,391
Fund Source

The Little Fork River Watershed Assessment will include the waters of the Rice River, Little Fork River, Flint Creek, Nett Lake River, Beaver Brook, Valley River, Willow River, Sturgeon River, Bear River, Dark River, and the Lost River. This Assessment will also include Little Bear Lake, Bear Lake, Thistledew Lake, Little Moose Lake, Raddison Lake, Napoleon Lake, Owen Lake, Dark Lake, Clear Lake, Long (Main) Lake, Dewey Lake, and Long (North) Lake. These lakes and streams are found throughout the Little Fork River Watershed, which spans parts of Koochiching, St. Louis and Itasca Counties.

Itasca
Koochiching
St. Louis
Recipient
Emmons & Olivier Resources Inc
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$3,730
Fund Source

The purpose of this project is to re-calculate the Littlefork river sediment Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) utilizing the 15 mg/L Total Suspended Solids (TSS) standard and update the associated Littlefork Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategies (WRAPS) document.

Itasca
Koochiching
Recipient
Sibley County
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$135,000
Fund Source

The project will plan, implement, and report on a community engagement strategy for identifying community/landowner opportunities, obstacles, and opinions on land management and water quality that will result in the identification of Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategies (WRAPS) input for the Sibley, Nicollet, Renville, McLeod, Rice, and Le Sueur County areas of the Lower Minnesota River watershed.

Le Sueur
McLeod
Nicollet
Renville
Rice
Sibley
Recipient
Tetra Tech Inc
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$240,207
Fund Source

This project will be part of a second phase to develop Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) studies for several lakes and streams in the watershed.

Carver
Le Sueur
McLeod
Nicollet
Rice
Scott
Sibley
Recipient
Coon Creek WD
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$195,158
Fund Source
Anoka
Recipient
Martin County SWCD
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$63,458
Fund Source

Martin Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD) is proposing to monitor six lakes sites and two stream sites in the Blue Earth River watershed. The lake sites will be monitored by kayak and the stream sites will be monitored from the shore. Sites will be analyzed for field conditions and water chemistry. Martin SWCD will subcontract with Faribault SWCD to monitor fourteen stream sites and with Blue Earth SWCD to monitor one lake site and three stream sites.

Blue Earth
Faribault
Martin
2021 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$0
2020 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$0
2019 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$0
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$0
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$0
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$0
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$0
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$0
2013 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$0
2012 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$1,000,000
2011 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$4,000,000
Fund Source

This project will establish a groundwater monitoring network in the 11 county metropolitan area. The network will provide information about aquifer characteristics and natural water trends by monitoring healthy aquifers (non-stressed systems). The project will also develop an automated system that captures groundwater level and water use data. This system will enhance evaluation of changes in aquifers that are stressed by pumping from existing wells.

Anoka
Carver
Chisago
Dakota
Hennepin
Isanti
Ramsey
Scott
Washington
Wright
Sherburne
Recipient
Tetra Tech Inc
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$150,000
Fund Source

This project will update sediment Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for 60-64 impaired stream reaches and provide a final TMDL report. The report will address sediment and turbidity impaired streams in the Minnesota River Watershed. TMDLs will describe the impairment in each water body and water quality targets, and will include a discussion of pollutant sources, supporting report components that document assumptions and methodologies, and TMDL equations with completed load allocations, wasteload allocations, and margin of safety for each impairment.

Blue Earth
Recipient
Tetra Tech Inc
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$74,986
Fund Source

This project addresses twelve lakes that have aquatic recreation impairments as identified by eutrophication indicators and 53 impairments on 45 stream reaches in the Minnesota River Mankato and Watonwan River watersheds. The project will develop Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) addressing impaired lakes and streams in the Minnesota River–Mankato and Watonwan River watersheds. A TMDL establishes the maximum amount of a pollutant allowed in a waterbody and serves as the starting point or planning tool for restoring water quality.

Blue Earth
Brown
Cottonwood
Jackson
Le Sueur
Martin
Nicollet
Redwood
Renville
Sibley
Watonwan
Recipient
Greater Blue Earth River Basin Alliance
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$301,200
Fund Source

The Greater Blue Earth River Basin Alliance (GBERBA) along with Soil and Water Conservation Districts, Counties, landowners, and drainage authorities in the ten member counties will install conservation drainage practices to improve water quality. 103E drainage systems with documented sediment or water quality issues are the focus with the goal of installing 52 practices such as improved side inlets (grade stabilization structures), alternative tile inlets, denitrifying bioreactors, saturated buffers, storage wetlands and others.

Blue Earth
Brown
Cottonwood
Faribault
Freeborn
Jackson
Le Sueur
Martin
Waseca
Watonwan
Recipient
Minnesota Erosion Control Association
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$4,405
Fund Source

Minnesota Erosion Control Association (MECA) will offer three one-day training session intended to educate permittees on the requirements of the Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) permit. The focus of these workshops will be on conducting inspections and various hot topics.

Blue Earth
Kandiyohi
Wright
Recipient
Tetra Tech Inc
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$109,928
Fund Source

The goal of this project is to refine the nutrient and algae simulation in the Minnesota River basin using all relevant available sources of information. The outcome of this work order is a revised Hydrological Simulation Program – FORTRAN (HSPF) watershed model application for the Minnesota River basin that correctly represents nutrient sources and algae.

Big Stone
Blue Earth
Brown
Carver
Chippewa
Cottonwood
Dakota
Douglas
Faribault
Freeborn
Grant
Hennepin
Kandiyohi
Lac qui Parle
Le Sueur
Lincoln
Lyon
Martin
McLeod
Murray
Nicollet
Otter Tail
Pipestone
Pope
Redwood
Renville
Rice
Scott
Sibley
Stevens
Swift
Traverse
Waseca
Watonwan
Yellow Medicine
Recipient
Anoka CD
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$467,968
Fund Source

Golden Lake does not meet state water quality standards due to high phosphorus levels. The proposed iron enhanced sand filter basin was identified in the Golden Lake Subwatershed Stormwater Retrofit Analysis to be one of the most cost effective remaining practices for reducing external phosphorus loads to Golden Lake. This project, paired with two previously installed upstream Best Management Practices, will achieve on average, 84% of the phosphorus reduction goal for the watershed.

Anoka
Recipient
Koochiching County SWCD
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$99,930
Fund Source

This project will provide an important framework for civic and citizen engagement and communication in the International Rainy River-Lake of the Woods Watershed, which will contribute to long-term public participation in surface water protection and restoration activities.

Cook
Itasca
Koochiching
Lake
Lake of the Woods
St. Louis
Recipient
University of Minnesota Center for Changing Landscapes
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$15,490
Fund Source

The University of Minnesota will develop effective interview questions for community watershed assessments in the Rainy River basin and provide assistance in understanding the data collected through community interviews.

Itasca
Koochiching
Lake of the Woods
Recipient
Koochiching Soil & Water Conservation District
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$75,000
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$51,212
2019 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$35,756
2021 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$52,850
Fund Source

The goal of this project is to conduct water chemistry monitoring at four subwatershed sites and two basin sites in 2016 and 2017; and six subwatershed sites and three basin sites in 2018-2019 based on flow conditions, targeting runoff events using protocols defined in the Watershed Pollutant Load Monitoring Network (WPLMN) Standard Operating Procedures and Guidance. The data collected will be submitted to the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) and used in the FLUX32 model for calculating pollutant loads.

Koochiching
St. Louis
Recipient
Lake of the Woods SWCD
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$143,880
2019 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$43,283
Fund Source

The Rapid River Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) project will result in the development of the restoration and protection strategies for the watershed and engage the local stakeholders in the practices of watershed management. This project will also develop Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for impaired waters.

Koochiching
Lake of the Woods
Recipient
Redwood-Cottonwood Rivers Control Area (RCRCA)
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$142,257
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$40,405
2019 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$28,078
2021 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$51,246
Fund Source

The overall goal of this project is to perform water quality monitoring and load calculation duties to accomplish Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) Watershed Pollutant Load Monitoring Network (WPLMN) monitoring efforts at the seven sites within the Redwood and Cottonwood River watersheds as well as the Minnesota River site near Morton. To accomplish this goal the requested funds will provide for technician’s time, mileage, lab costs, supplies, as well as equipment calibration and upkeep.

Brown
Lyon
Redwood
Recipient
Metropolitan Council/University of Minnesota
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$30,648
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$61,296
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$55,608
2019 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$99,840
Fund Source

The Metropolitan Council, in conjunction with the University of Minnesota, is evaluating outdoor water use in the Twin Cities metro region - a subject which has come under the spotlight recently due to concerns related to water quality and quantity issues. In the Twin Cities, 20% of all treated drinking water is used outdoors, with a majority of this being used on lawns and landscapes. The goal of this proposal is to reduce water use in the home landscape by conducting assessments, research, and demonstration around the smart use of irrigation.

Anoka
Carver
Dakota
Hennepin
Ramsey
Scott
Washington