Minnesota's Legacy

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Showing 1 - 40 of 64 | Export projects
Recipient
RESPEC
2013 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$49,986
Fund Source

The goal of this project is to continue and finalize Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) watershed model construction and complete the calibration/validation process. The project will add representation of point source discharges to the model, compile flow and water quality data for the purposes of calibration and validation. The end result will be an HSPF watershed model that can readily be used to provide information to support conventional parameter TMDLs.

Mahnomen
Norman
Polk
Recipient
Dakota SWCD
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$300,000
Fund Source

This project targets retrofit stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) on public land to assist partnering Local Government Units (LGUs) achieve water quality goals identified in local stormwater plans. The Dakota County Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD) provides technical assistance and distributes Clean Water Funding (CWF) to leverage local funding through its time-proven Stormwater Retrofit Partnership (Partnership) cost share program.

Dakota
Recipient
Dakota SWCD
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$100,000
Fund Source

This project is a continuation of the Dakota County Community Initiative, which has received Clean Water Funds in 2012 and 2013. It will provide cost share funding to organizations and associations who voluntarily construct medium sized water quality best management practices (BMPs) in Dakota County.

Dakota
Recipient
Dakota SWCD
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$150,000
Fund Source
Dakota
Recipient
Dakota SWCD
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$150,000
Fund Source

This project will use the Dakota County Soil and Water Conservation District's existing Conservation Initiative Funding program to provide technical assistance and monetary incentives for targeted, medium-sized projects such as raingardens, bioinfiltration, biofiltration, bioswales, shoreline stabilizations, and other best management practices (BMPs). Project proposals will be solicited from faith based organizations, homeowner associations, school organizations, lake associations, and others that own or manage large areas of land.

Dakota
Recipient
Farmers, Rural Landowners, and Agricultural Supply Businesses
2019 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$75,000
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$75,000
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$75,000
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$75,000
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$200,000
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$200,000
2013 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$4,500,000
2012 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$4,500,000
2011 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$2,500,000
2010 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$2,000,000
Fund Source

The AgBMP Loan Program provides needed funding for local implementation of clean water practices at an extremely low cost, is unique in its structure and is not duplicated by any other source of funding.The AgBMP loan program provides 3% loans through local lenders to farmers, rural landowners, and agriculture supply businesses.

Anoka
Becker
Blue Earth
Brown
Carver
Cook
Cottonwood
Dakota
Dodge
Douglas
Faribault
Fillmore
Freeborn
Goodhue
Grant
Houston
Hubbard
Jackson
Kandiyohi
Lac qui Parle
Le Sueur
Lincoln
Lyon
Martin
Morrison
Mower
Murray
Nicollet
Olmsted
Pipestone
Pope
Redwood
Renville
Rice
Rock
Scott
Sherburne
Sibley
St. Louis
Stearns
Steele
Stevens
Todd
Traverse
Wabasha
Waseca
Washington
Watonwan
Winona
Yellow Medicine
Recipient
Peer Engineering
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$115,910
Fund Source

Peer Engineering, Inc. (Peer) will evaluate and recommend to MPCA groundwater monitoring staff prospective sites/locations for the installation of groundwater monitoring wells to evaluate contaminant/pollutant concentrations from various sources. Peer will oversee the installation of monitoring wells by retaining a state drilling contractor or preparing bid documents to retain well driller through the Department of Administration. Superfund staff will assist in the project by providing oversight of contractual requirements and provide technical assistance as needed.

Dakota
Hennepin
Mower
Rice
Washington
Recipient
Minnesota Humanities Center
2018 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$150,000
Fund Source

The goal of this project is to use the We Are Water MN exhibit and their technical knowledge in relationship-building and storytelling to increase community capacity for sustainable watershed management in the Cannon River, Cedar River, Mississippi-Headwaters, Mississippi-Grand Rapids, Mississippi-Twin Cities, Red Lake River, Rum River and St. Louis River watersheds.

Benton
Carlton
Dakota
Hennepin
Itasca
Mille Lacs
Mower
Polk
Recipient
Metropolitan Council-Environmental Services
2013 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$405,500
Fund Source

This project will provide condition monitoring and problem investigation monitoring at the following sites.
Mississippi River: Tributaries include Bassett Creek, Cannon River, Crow River, and Minnehaha Creek.
Minnesota River: Tributaries include Eagle Creek,Riley Creek, and Valley Creek tributary to the St. Croix River

Anoka
Benton
Carver
Chisago
Dakota
Hennepin
Isanti
Le Sueur
McLeod
Meeker
Mille Lacs
Morrison
Nicollet
Pine
Ramsey
Renville
Rice
Scott
Sherburne
Sibley
Stearns
Washington
Wright
Recipient
Barr Engineering Company
2011 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$34,339
Fund Source

This Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) project will develop a TMDL Report and Implementation Plan defining the sources contributing to the impairments and outlining the steps necessary to bring Bluff Creek back to meeting water quality standards.

Carver
Dakota
Hennepin
Le Sueur
McLeod
Nicollet
Ramsey
Renville
Rice
Scott
Sibley
Recipient
Barr Engineering Company
2011 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$18,020
Fund Source

This project will develop a Final TMDL report and Implementation Plan for the Bluff Creek Watershed.  The main outcomes of this project are the development of a Final TMDL Report approved by MPCA and EPA and a Final Implementation Plan approved by MPCA. 

Carver
Dakota
Hennepin
Le Sueur
McLeod
Rice
Scott
Sibley
Recipient
Polk, West SWCD
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$45,000
Fund Source

Phase II of the Burnham Creek Watershed Restoration Project will conduct inventory on 2,050 acres, 85.4 miles of ditch channel within the Burnham Creek Watershed of West Polk County. This inventory includes surveying, assembling all available GIS data, ArcMap, LiDAR, review aerial photography, location of tile intakes, determine size of the erosion sites, and prioritization of severity. The district will partner with the Area DNR Hydrologist and the Polk County Highway Department-Drainage & Ag Inspector to verify data and identify any additional ditch segments.

Polk
Recipient
Minnesota River Board
2012 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$91,691
Fund Source

This project will support a civic engagement cohort that will be offered in southwest Minnesota to foster partnering and build capacity of local government, organizations, and residents for effective civic engagement in water protection and restoration. This project will also build networks and the skill set of local resource professionals to do effective civic engagement work for water restoration and protection. The cohort will be administered through the Minnesota River Board (MRB), established in 1995 with a goal of focusing water management efforts on the local level.

Big Stone
Blue Earth
Brown
Chippewa
Cottonwood
Douglas
Faribault
Grant
Jackson
Kandiyohi
Lac qui Parle
Le Sueur
Lincoln
Lyon
Martin
McLeod
Murray
Nicollet
Nobles
Otter Tail
Pipestone
Pope
Redwood
Renville
Rock
Sibley
Stevens
Swift
Traverse
Waseca
Watonwan
Yellow Medicine
Recipient
RESPEC
2013 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$70,000
Fund Source

This project will complete spatial and temporal revisions , recalibration and validation of 7 watershed HSPF models. These fully functioning calibrated validated executable models will simulate hydrology, sediment (sand, silt, and clay), temperature, phosphorus, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and algae at the 12-digit HUC subbasin scale (or finer).

Blue Earth
Brown
Carver
Cottonwood
Dakota
Faribault
Freeborn
Jackson
Le Sueur
Lincoln
Lyon
Martin
McLeod
Murray
Nicollet
Pipestone
Ramsey
Redwood
Renville
Rice
Scott
Sibley
Steele
Waseca
Watonwan
Yellow Medicine
Recipient
Sand Hill River Watershed District
2011 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$178,139
Fund Source

This first phase of project will define the existing watershed conditions; identify gaps in existing data; design and implement a plan to address data gaps; incorporate gap data into watershed description; guide development of the HSPF model; establish citizen advisory, technical advisory and locally-based focus groups; research and design an education and outreach strategy; and design and deploy the tools and methods to employ the strategy.

Mahnomen
Norman
Polk
Recipient
RESPEC
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$128,887
Fund Source
The goal of this project is to extend the existing HSPF models through 2012 in the Chippewa Watershed (07020005) and Hawk-Yellow Medicine Watershed (07020004) to incorporate recent monitoring data to support current MPCA business needs and sediment source investigations.
Blue Earth
Brown
Carver
Chippewa
Cottonwood
Dakota
Douglas
Faribault
Freeborn
Hennepin
Kandiyohi
Le Sueur
Lincoln
Lyon
McLeod
Murray
Nicollet
Otter Tail
Pipestone
Pope
Renville
Rice
Scott
Sibley
Steele
Swift
Waseca
Watonwan
Yellow Medicine
Recipient
RESPEC
2011 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$214,963
Fund Source

This project will complete spatial and temporal revisions of 6 Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) models, the recalibration and validation of 7 watershed HSPF models, and the revision of the drainage network and point source representation of the Pomme de Terre HSPF model.

Big Stone
Blue Earth
Brown
Carver
Cottonwood
Dakota
Douglas
Faribault
Freeborn
Grant
Hennepin
Jackson
Le Sueur
Lincoln
Lyon
Mahnomen
Martin
McLeod
Murray
Nicollet
Norman
Otter Tail
Pipestone
Polk
Ramsey
Redwood
Renville
Rice
Scott
Sibley
Steele
Stevens
Swift
Waseca
Watonwan
Yellow Medicine
Recipient
Tetra Tech
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$100,000
Fund Source

The Minnesota River Basin Hydrological Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) models, which simulate flow and pollutant transport, need to be refined to be consistent with the most recent external sources of land use, hydrologic response, and surface flow attributions. The primary goal of this work is to refine the hydrologic calibration in the Minnesota River basin.

Big Stone
Blue Earth
Brown
Carver
Chippewa
Cottonwood
Dakota
Douglas
Faribault
Freeborn
Grant
Hennepin
Kandiyohi
Lac qui Parle
Le Sueur
Lincoln
Lyon
Martin
McLeod
Murray
Nicollet
Otter Tail
Pipestone
Pope
Redwood
Renville
Rice
Scott
Sibley
Stevens
Swift
Traverse
Waseca
Watonwan
Yellow Medicine
Recipient
Burnsville, City of
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$398,000
Fund Source

The Keller Lake Water Quality Improvement Project achieves the goals of the City of Burnsville, Black Dog Watershed Management Organization, and the Keller Lake TMDL by:-Achieving the City of Burnsville phosphorus removal requirement outlined in the Keller Lake TMDL by removing 78 lbs/yr-Utilizing remaining available land to construct a high performance, regional stormwater BMP-Providing a high profile water resource/stormwater educational opportunity in the frequently visited Crystal Beach Park-Retaining valuable open space in popular Crystal Beach Park by constructing the BMP undergroundK

Dakota
Recipient
Apple Valley, City of
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$30,000
Fund Source

The City of Apple Valley will conduct a subwatershed assessment on the sections of Apple Valley draining to Keller Lake to target potential projects. The goal is to identify potential cost effective retrofit projects and operations improvements capable of fulfilling needed phosphorus reductions ahead of a number of planned infrastructure projects tentatively scheduled for 2018-2022.

Dakota
Recipient
LimnoTech
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$62,280
Fund Source

The goal of this project is to prepare a draft Lake Pepin Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Report. Lake Pepin is impaired by high levels of nutrients that cause excessive growth of algae.

Dakota
Goodhue
Scott
Wabasha
Recipient
LimnoTech
2019 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$11,920
Fund Source

The goal of this project is to finalize the Lake Pepin Watershed phosphorus total maximum daily load (TMDL) report by using the existing information and documentation prepared under previous contracts to prepare one TMDL report that addresses the impairments on the mainstem of the Mississippi River. Information developed to date for draft TMDLs on the Minnesota River mainstem will be documented for later use by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency.

Anoka
Blue Earth
Brown
Carver
Chippewa
Cottonwood
Dakota
Goodhue
Hennepin
Kandiyohi
Lac qui Parle
Le Sueur
Lincoln
Lyon
McLeod
Nicollet
Ramsey
Redwood
Renville
Rice
Scott
Sibley
Wabasha
Washington
Yellow Medicine
Recipient
Lower Mississippi River WMO
2016 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$196,000
Fund Source

Lake Augusta and Sunfish Lake are deep lakes located in the Lower Mississippi River Watershed Management Organization. Both lakes are approximately 40 acres in size and surrounded by watersheds with moderate to low imperviousness. Both lakes are included on the MPCA's 303(d) list as impaired for aquatic recreation due to excessive nutrients. Lake Augusta and Sunfish Lake were included in a watershed restoration and protection strategies (WRAPS) study and total maximum daily load (TMDL) performed from 2012 to 2014.

Dakota
Recipient
International Water Institute
2012 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$134,867
Fund Source

This project will support water quality monitoring and data analysis in the Red River Basin. The monitoring will assist in providing water chemistry data needed to calculate annual pollutant loads for the Major Watershed Load Monitoring Program (MWLMP) and provide short term data sets of select parameters to other MPCA programs.

Beltrami
Clearwater
Kittson
Mahnomen
Marshall
Norman
Pennington
Polk
Red Lake
Roseau
Recipient
Metropolitan Council
2010 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$326,500
Fund Source

This project will provide condition monitoring and problem investigation monitoring at the following sites. Mississippi River: Tributaries include Bassett Creek, Cannon River, Crow River, and Minnehaha Creek. Minnesota River: Tributaries include Eagle Creek, Riley Creek, and Willow Creek. St. Croix River: Tributary includes Valley Creek.

Wright
Washington
Stearns
Sibley
Sherburne
Scott
Rice
Renville
Pine
Nicollet
Morrison
Mille Lacs
Meeker
McLeod
Le Sueur
Isanti
Hennepin
Dakota
Chisago
Carver
Benton
Anoka
Recipient
Tetra Tech Inc
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$68,033

This project addresses five reaches of the Minnesota River that have aquatic recreation impairments as identified by high concentrations of E. coli. The project will describe the water quality impairments, complete pollutant source assessments, establish loading capacities and allocations for the impairments, and develop implementation strategies.

Big Stone
Blue Earth
Brown
Carver
Chippewa
Cottonwood
Douglas
Faribault
Freeborn
Grant
Kandiyohi
Lac qui Parle
Le Sueur
Lincoln
Lyon
Martin
McLeod
Murray
Nicollet
Pipestone
Pope
Redwood
Renville
Scott
Sibley
Steele
Stevens
Swift
Waseca
Watonwan
Yellow Medicine
Recipient
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
2011 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$3,521,699
Fund Source

This project supports monitoring and assessment activities by MPCA EAO staff and includes lab analysis, equipment, and fieldwork expenses associated with monitoring and assessment activities.

Lake Monitoring: Lakes are monitored for nutrients, clarity and other information to provide the data needed to assess the aquatic recreation use support.

Becker
Beltrami
Blue Earth
Carlton
Dakota
Dodge
Douglas
Freeborn
Goodhue
Jackson
Lake
Le Sueur
Lincoln
Mahnomen
Marshall
Morrison
Murray
Nobles
Norman
Otter Tail
Pennington
Pine
Pipestone
Polk
Rice
Rock
Roseau
Scott
St. Louis
Steele
Todd
Wadena
Waseca
Recipient
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
2013 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$5,265,335
Fund Source

This project supports monitoring and assessment activities by MPCA EAO staff and includes lab analysis, equipment, and fieldwork expenses associated with monitoring and assessment activities within the described priority watersheds.

Lake Monitoring: Lakes are monitored for nutrients, clarity and other information to provide the data needed to assess the aquatic recreation use support.

Aitkin
Anoka
Benton
Big Stone
Blue Earth
Brown
Chippewa
Chisago
Cook
Cottonwood
Crow Wing
Faribault
Freeborn
Isanti
Jackson
Kanabec
Kittson
Lac qui Parle
Lake
Le Sueur
Marshall
Martin
Mille Lacs
Morrison
Nicollet
Pennington
Pine
Polk
Redwood
Renville
Roseau
Sibley
Stevens
Swift
Traverse
Watonwan
Recipient
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$297,169
Fund Source

This project supports monitoring and assessment activities by MPCA EAO staff and includes lab analysis, equipment, fieldwork, data management, and interpretation expenses associated with monitoring and assessment activities.The ambient groundwater monitoring network describes the current condition and trends in Minnesota's groundwater quality.

Anoka
Becker
Beltrami
Blue Earth
Carlton
Cass
Chisago
Clay
Clearwater
Dakota
Faribault
Goodhue
Hennepin
Hubbard
Itasca
Lake
Lake of the Woods
Lyon
Morrison
Mower
Olmsted
Otter Tail
Pine
Polk
Ramsey
Redwood
Scott
Sherburne
Stearns
Todd
Wabasha
Wadena
Washington
Winona
Recipient
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$287,628
Fund Source

This project supports monitoring and assessment activities by MPCA EAO staff and includes lab analysis, equipment, fieldwork, data management, and interpretation expenses associated with monitoring and assessment activities.The ambient groundwater monitoring network describes the current condition and trends in Minnesota's groundwater quality.

Anoka
Becker
Beltrami
Blue Earth
Carlton
Cass
Chisago
Clay
Clearwater
Dakota
Faribault
Goodhue
Hennepin
Hubbard
Itasca
Lake
Lake of the Woods
Lyon
Morrison
Mower
Olmsted
Otter Tail
Pine
Polk
Ramsey
Redwood
Scott
Sherburne
Stearns
Todd
Wabasha
Wadena
Washington
Winona
Recipient
Greater Blue Earth River Basin Alliance
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$301,200
Fund Source

The Greater Blue Earth River Basin Alliance (GBERBA) along with Soil and Water Conservation Districts, Counties, landowners, and drainage authorities in the ten member counties will install conservation drainage practices to improve water quality. 103E drainage systems with documented sediment or water quality issues are the focus with the goal of installing 52 practices such as improved side inlets (grade stabilization structures), alternative tile inlets, denitrifying bioreactors, saturated buffers, storage wetlands and others.

Blue Earth
Brown
Cottonwood
Faribault
Freeborn
Jackson
Le Sueur
Martin
Waseca
Watonwan
Recipient
Tetra Tech Inc
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$109,928
Fund Source

The goal of this project is to refine the nutrient and algae simulation in the Minnesota River basin using all relevant available sources of information. The outcome of this work order is a revised Hydrological Simulation Program – FORTRAN (HSPF) watershed model application for the Minnesota River basin that correctly represents nutrient sources and algae.

Big Stone
Blue Earth
Brown
Carver
Chippewa
Cottonwood
Dakota
Douglas
Faribault
Freeborn
Grant
Hennepin
Kandiyohi
Lac qui Parle
Le Sueur
Lincoln
Lyon
Martin
McLeod
Murray
Nicollet
Otter Tail
Pipestone
Pope
Redwood
Renville
Rice
Scott
Sibley
Stevens
Swift
Traverse
Waseca
Watonwan
Yellow Medicine
Recipient
Polk , East SWCD
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$364,880
Fund Source

Increases in crop prices have reduced the acreage of land in conservation set-aside programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program and other marginal land use. Significant conversion of grasslands to cultivated agricultural crops has increased the levels of runoff and sedimentation. Phase III of this project addresses the need to protect vulnerable sites by installing water and sediment basins. These basins are earthen embankments built to temporarily detain sediment-laden runoff, allowing sediment to settle out before runoff is discharged.

Polk
Recipient
Polk , East SWCD
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$253,800
Fund Source

This project is Phase IV of work to install water and sediment basins located within Sand Hill Watershed. A water and sediment basin is an earthen embankment built so that sediment-laden runoff is temporarily detained, allowing sediment to settle out before runoff is discharge. These are installed on agricultural cropland where erosion exceeds the allowable soil rate. Minimum detention time to store water is 36 hours for a 10 year, 24 hour runoff event. Starting in 2010, the District received dollars to assist landowners with flood-related projects.

Polk
Recipient
Sand Hill River WD
2017 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$68,800
Fund Source

Consistent with the implementation recommendation of the Total Maximum Daily Load Study , the goal of this project is to install 30 grade stabilization structures along Polk County Ditch 80 to reduce sediment loading by 270 tons per year. Polk County Ditch 80 contributes a large amount of sediment to the Sand Hill River which currently does not meet state water quality standards for sediment.

Polk
Recipient
United States Geological Survey (USGS)
2012 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$10,800
2013 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$11,119
Fund Source

This project will collect real-time parameter data for specific conductance, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and stream flow at the United States geological Survey (USGS) gaging stations located at Fargo, ND and Grand Forks, ND on the Red River of the North; and publish the data both on the USGS NWIS website and in the USGS Annual Report.

Beltrami
Clay
Clearwater
Mahnomen
Marshall
Norman
Otter Tail
Pennington
Polk
Red Lake
Wilkin
Recipient
International Water Institute
2011 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$60,915
Fund Source

This project will support water quality monitoring and data analysis in nine major watersheds (8-digit Hydrologic Unit Codes) of the Lower Red River Basin. The monitoring will assist in providing water chemistry data needed to calculate annual pollutant loads for the Major Watershed Load Monitoring Program (MWLMP) and provide short term data sets of select parameters to other MPCA programs.

Beltrami
Clearwater
Kittson
Mahnomen
Marshall
Pennington
Polk
Red Lake
Roseau
Recipient
Red River Watershed Management Board
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$100,000
Fund Source

The goal of this project is to engage citizens in local watershed monitoring, work with regional partners to promote understanding and protection of watersheds, and organize and facilitate gathering of scientific data for the benefit of water quality in the Red River Basin.

Becker
Beltrami
Big Stone
Clay
Clearwater
Grant
Kittson
Mahnomen
Marshall
Norman
Otter Tail
Pennington
Polk
Red Lake
Roseau
Stevens
Traverse
Wilkin
Recipient
Red River Watershed Management Board
2015 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$100,000
Fund Source

The goal of this project is to engage citizens in local watershed monitoring, work with regional partners to promote understanding and protection of watersheds, and organize and facilitate gathering of scientific data for the benefit of water quality in the Red River Basin.

Becker
Beltrami
Big Stone
Clay
Clearwater
Grant
Kittson
Mahnomen
Marshall
Norman
Otter Tail
Pennington
Polk
Red Lake
Roseau
Stevens
Traverse
Wilkin
Recipient
Red River Watershed Mgmt Board
2014 Fiscal Year Funding Amount
$30,636
Fund Source

As part of the FY 2012 funding cycle, the Board of Water and Soil Resources granted funds for development of the Water Quality Decision Support Application (WQDSA). The WQDSA will provide land and water managers with geospatial data and online tools to prioritize, market, and implement actions on the landscape to achieve water quality objectives identified in local and state water plans and to ensure that public funding decisions are strategic and defensible.

Becker
Clay
Mahnomen
Norman
Polk